Periwinkle Plant Uses Benefits Side Effects Dosage Hair Health Treatment
IARANTHUS OSEUS (L.) G. Don syn. Vinca rosea L., Loch- CAT nera rosea (L.) Reichlb
- Botanical name: Catharanthus rosens Linn. G. Donn
- Common name: Hindi – Sadabahar, Nityakalyani, Sadaphul, Nayantara.
- Family : Apocynaceae
- Bengali-Gul feringi, Nayantara
- Tamil-Sudukatu mallikai;
This plant was previously known as Vinca rosea. It is a hard perennial herb native to Madagascar. It has naturalized in many regions particularly in arid coastal areas. It is grown commercially for its medicinal use in Africa, Australia, India and South Europe. It can be grown in a tough condition throughout the year. It produces generally white and pink flowers. It is found growing in tropical and sub-tropical areas of in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Tamil Nadu. Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. It is also grown as a pot ornamental plant. It is an errect, branched bushy plant. It reaches a height of about 60 cm to 70 cm. The plant has simple oblong petiolate opposite leaves. Flowers are borne in axil having five petals. Fruit is a folicle about 1.0 cm to 2 cm long and split longitudaly at maturity.
Introduction of Periwinkle (Sadabahar) :-
Periwinkle, Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don, called Bara Massi or Sada Bahar in Hindi, Billaganneru in Telugu and Kasi Kanigale in Kannada has been recognized as one of the most important plants for medicinal use. It is a hardy plant growing wild in many places and now cultivated systematically for the last few years. It is one of the very few medicinal plants which has a long history of use. Periwinkle is recorded as far back as 50 B.C. in folk-medicine literature of Europe as diuretic, antidysenteric, haemorrhagic and wound-healing. It was known for use in the treatment of diabetes in Jamaica and India. The alkaloids vinblastine and vincristine, present in the leaves of the plant, are recognised as anticancer drugs. Raubasine (ajmalicine) and reserpine, present in the roots, are recognised as anti-fibrillic and hypotensive agents, respectively In 1958, C.T. Beer and R.L. Noble of the University of Western Ontario, Canada tested an extract of C. roseus on rabbits, to confirm its efficacy in reducing the blood-sugar content. They found that there was practically no change in blood-sugar level, but there was reduction in the white blood cells. It was noted that with increased dosage, there was proportionate reduction in white blood cells to the extent that there was practically no resistance in the body and the animal died due to infection of Pseudomonas sp. This observation aroused the curiosity of scientists and they traced this phenomenon to the presence of the alkaloid vincaleukoblastine (VLB) or vinblastine in the plant. The alkaloid was, therefore, tested against leukaemia, where the rate of production of white blood cells increases much above the normal. It was then clin established that it is useful in the treatment of Hodgkin’s disease cancer that attacks lymph glands, spleen, liver and choriocarcinoma G.H. Sveboda and co-workers at Messrs Eli Lilly & Co., in U.S.A did further work and developed necessary technology for isolation of alkaloids from the plant ically , a USA is the world’s largest user of the raw material Hungary has been one of the major consumers of the leaves West Germany, Italy, Netherlands and UK are interested in roots for extraction of raubasine. India exported Catharanthus roots worth Rs.4.5 million in 1985-86, Rs. 2.9 million in 1986-87 and Rs. 5.5 million in 1987-88 In view of the export and inhouse demand, several new factories are coming up in South India for manufacture of raubasine from Catharanthus roots. Thus, there is increasing scope for cultivation of Catharanthus roseus in India.
Active Ingredients Of Periwinkle (Sadabahar) :-
All parts of the plant contain alkaloids. It contain more than 65 alkaloids mostly of the indole groups. It contains alkaloids like Ajamalicine, Serpentine, Reserpine, Vincristine and Vinblastine.
Uses of Periwinkle (Sadabahar) :-
It is a very useful plant. All parts of this plant is used for preparing medicines for curing cancer, high blood pressure, cardio tonic, anti-inflammatory, ant malarial, antiduretic, anti- diabetes, anti bacterial, uterine stimulant, animal repellent actively anti fungal, antitumor, dysentery etc. Vinblastine and vincrcistine are alkaloids which are administered intravenously very cautionsly for curing different types of cancer. The leaves, flowers and roots are used for extracting the drugs. It can be grown both in sunny and shady situations
Climate Required for Periwinkle (Sadabahar) :-
It can be grown well in tropical and sub tropical climates with extreme of temperature. It can tolerate a temperature as high as 40°C. But the optimum temperature for its growth is in between 20 C to 32°C. Its growth is restricted at high temperature and also at very low temperature. The cosmopolitan distribution of the plant shows that it has no requirements. However, the growth is much better in tropical and sub-tropical areas. In India, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Assam are ideally suited for the cultivation of the plant.
Soil Need for Periwinkle (Sadabahar) :-
It can be grown in wide range of soils but it grows well in sandy loam or loamy soils, rich in organic matter with good drainage. The soil pH should be in between 6.5 to 8.0. The plant also specific soil and climatic rows in sub-tropical areas of northern India but the growth is slow due to extremely low temperature during the winter It can grow on any type of soil except those which are highly saline, alkaline or water-logged. However, it is found growing wild as a weed in the coastal areas of Andhra Pradesh. Light soils, which are rich in humus, are preferable for large scale cultivation, since harvesting of the roots become easy A well distributed rainfall of 100 cm or more is ideal if the plant is to be grown as a rainfed crop.
Land Preparation to Plant Periwinkle (Sadabahar):-
The land should be thoroughly prepared by ploughing 2-3 times and make it friable. It should be levelled properly before making small beds for planting. It is propagated by seeds or by cutting, but commercially propagated by seeds. About 2 to 5 kg/ha seeds are required for sowing in July during rainy season. The seeds may be soaked in Thiram or Capatan@2g/kg of seeds for protecting them for any seed born disease. For raising seedling about 500g/ha seeds will be enough. Seeds are raised in nursery beds during the month of April-May and transplanted after two months in the field. Seeds germinate within 10-15 days of sowing. The seedlings are planted at distance of 45 cm x 45 cm or 45 cm x 30cm. Immediately after planting the seedlings should be irrigated. It is grown as a rainfed crop, however, plants should be irrigated as and when required for proper growth and branching. The crops is given 60:40:20 kg NP and K/ha well rotten FYM@ 250 q/ha should also be incorporated in the field at the time of land preparation. The nitrogenous fertilizers should be applied at 3 split doses once at the time of field preparation second after 60 days, and third at 120 days of planting. Proper soil moisture and nutrition will help high vegetative growth and root yield. Weeding should be done after 30 and 60 days of planting. Weeds should be removed so that there should not be any nutrient loss. The field should be kept weed free. Application of Butachlor 2 kg/ha or Alachlor @ 0.2 kg/ha keeps the field free weeds. Two sprays of GA 5 to 10 ppm at 60 and 120 days of planting will increase the vegetative growth.
Description of Periwinkle (Sadabahar) Flowers :-
An erect herb up to about 1 m high; leaves ovate, opposite; flowers in axillary clusters of 2 or 3; petals white or rose-pink in one variety petals white with pink or reddish tinge at base; fruits many-seeded, follicles.
Distribution of Periwinkle (Sadabahar):-
The plant is a native of Madagascar, but has become naturalised throughout the tropics of both hemispheres.
Drug and its properties of Periwinkle (Sadabahar):-
The roots of the plant constitute the drug. They were known to possess toxic and stomachic properties, but recently they have gained repute as a source of valuable alkaloids resem- bling those from Rauvolfia species. Roots of Catharanthus have more ajmalicine and serpentine than even Rauvolfia serpentina; they also possess reserpine Quisling properties. tracts of Catharanthus are useful in leukemia.
Description of the plant of Periwinkle (Sadabahar):-
Catharanthus (Apocynaceae) is a tropical genus indigenous to Malagasy, spreading to Mozambique, India, Philippines, Australia, South Vietnam, Sri Lanka, etc. The most important species is Catharanthus roseus.
There are three variants in C. roseus:
- Rose purple flowered,
- White-flowered with rose-purple spot in the center.
The first variety is being cultivated on a large scale. C. roseus is a perennial herb, up to 0.9 m in height. Stem- erect, lax branching branches, purple or light green. Leaf-simple, cauline, opposite, ex-stipulate, petiolate. Inflorescenes-recemose, flowers in axillary pairs. Flower-rose-purple or white or white with rose-purple spot the centre-pedicillate, hermaphrodite, complete actinomorphic, hypogynous. Calyx-sepals 5, green. Corolla- petals 5, rose-purple or white with rose-purple spot in the centre, tubular, swollen in the regionof anthers, throat of corollatube hairy, forming a corona-like structure. Androecium-5 stamens, included in the corolla tube, filaments very small, epipetalous, anthers forming a cone-like structure above the stigma. Gynoecium- 2 carpels, free below but united in the stylar region, ovaries 2, free, single style with dumble-shaped stigma. After fertilization, the carpels separate and form two fruits which form a pair of elongated follicles. Seeds small, black in colour; I g contains about 835 seeds.
Propagation of Periwinkle (Sadabahar):-
It is propagated from seeds. As seeds do not maintain viability for a long time, only fresh seeds should be used. Seeds can be sown either in a nursery and then transplanted or sown directly in the field.
- Direct sowing: Direct sowing can be adopted during the monsoon months, particularly if large area has to be cultivated. About 2.5 kg of seeds are required per hectare. Seeds are mixed with about 25 kg of fine, moist sand to ensure even distribution. They are sown in rows, 45 cm apart and subsequently seedlings are thinned out in rows maintaining distance of about 30 cm between the plants.
- Transplanting: If seeds are scarce, transplanting can be adopted with advantage since only about 500 g of seeds will be enough to plant one hectare. In that case, the seeds are sown in nursery beds, two months in advance, so that the transplanting coincides with the onset of monsoon. This is particularly important when the crop is to be grown under rainfed conditions. An area of about 200 sq m under nursery gives enough seedlings for transplanting one hectare land. The seeds take about 10 days to germinate and about 60 days to reach transplanting stage. Transplanting is done at 45×30 cm spacing. One hectare requires about 74,000 seedlings.
<ahref=”Manures and fertilizers use for of Periwinkle (Sadabahar):-“>Manures and fertilizers use for of Periwinkle (Sadabahar):-
Farmyards manure at the rate of about 10 t/ha are applied in those areas where it is available at reasonable rate. If irrigation is available, it is advantageous to grow a leguminous crop, such as sunhemp or horsegram, prior to sowing or transplanting and ploughing it when it attains flowering stage. When this is done, application of armyard manure may be dispensed with. This helps manure seeds should preferably be treated with bacterial inoculum, prior to sowing, to increase the development of root nodules which absorb atmospheric nitrogen and fix it in the soil. For treating seeds which inoculum jaggery solution is prepared by dissolving about 50 g of jaggery in 500 ml of water, boiled, cooled and green manur seeds are wetted with this solution. Then, rhizobium culture (@ 300 g per hectare) is sprinkled and mixed well. The stickiness of the jaggery helps the rhizobium culture to adhere to the seeds. Seeds are kept in shade for a few minutes before sowing. Care should be taken to ensure that rhizobium culture mixed seeds are not exposed n. Treatment with rhizobium culture increases the development of root nodules in the green manure crop which helps in fixing the atmospheric nitrogen in the soil. After the green manure crop is ploughed in or after the application of farmyard manure, as the case may be, the land is prepared as for any other agricultural crop A basal dose of 250 kg of superphosphate and 65 kg muriate of potash are als. incorporated in the soil. 110 kg urea is applied to the crop in two splits. First application is made 10-15 days after transplanting and the second application is made one month later This is for an irrigated crop. When the crop is grown under rainfed conditions, half the quantities of manure and fertilizers mentioned above should be applied
Weeding of of Periwinkle (Sadabahar):-
The crop requires two weedings in the initial stage. First weeding is done about 60 days after sowing/transplanting and the second weeding, 60 days later. IRRIGATION Places where rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year the plants do not require any irrigation. However, the areas where the monsoon is restricted to a particular period, 4-5 irrigations once in fifteen days during February, and March and April months are needed to get optimum yield
Harvesting of the Periwinkle (Sadabahar):-
- Roots: The crop is harvested after about 12 months from sowing. The crop is cut at about 7.5 cm above the ground and dried in shade. The field is then copiously irrigated and when it reaches at proper moisture level, it is ploughed and the roots are collected. The roots are washed thoroughly and dried in shade.
- Leaves, stems and seeds: If there is demand for leaves, two leaf-strippings can be taken, the first one after 6 months and the second one after 9 months from sowing. Third stripping of leaves is also obtained when the whole plant is harvested. After harvesting the whole plant is dried in shade. At this stage, light threshing will separate the seeds, which can be used for the next sowing. The leaves and stems are also then separately collected. Seeds collected this way will have fruits of various degrees of maturity and hence will have poor percentage of germination. It is, therefore, advisable that only mature pods should be collected during two or three months before the crop is harvested. This may be expensive, but there is no alternative. The aerial part of the plant between 7.5 cm and about 25 cm above the ground level is taken as stem for the purpose of marketing.
Harvesting and Yield of Periwinkle (Sadabahar):-
The first picking of leaves is done after 120 days of planting and second 180 days and third 210 days. The plants are cut above 6-7 cm from the ground. If the field is hard, a light irrigation is given and after few days, root are dug out and uprooted carefully. Under irrigated conditions, about 1.5 tonnes of leaves, and 1.2 tonnes of roots on air-dry basis are obtained per hectare. The yield of leaves and roots under rainfed conditions is 0.75 Vha each on air-dry basis.
The foliage and roots are dried in shade after cleaning A yield of about 3-5 tones of dried leaves, 4-tonnes of dried stem and 1.5 to 2.5 tones of dried root/ha is obtained. Dried leaves are sold @ Rs. 10/kg, roots Rs. 15-20/kg and seeds Rs. 50-60/kg.
Pests and diseases control in Periwinkle (Sadabahar):-
The plant is very hardy and resistant to the attack of fungi and insects. Occasionally, some plants have been found to suffer from Little-leaf disease, a viral infection resulting in stunted growth of the plant. The disease can be checked from spreading by uprooting and destroying the affected plants. It is observed that the viral disease spreads through insect vectors. This can be minimised by controlling the vector by spraying insecticides like Metacid or Nuvacron once in 15 days when the infection is prevalent. Recently, die-back, caused by Pythium aphanidermatum Edson Fitzp., has been found to affect the erop during the monsoon. The disease can be controlled by spraying Captafol w.p. ( 0.3 % ) at an interval of about 10 days. It is observed that mulching between the rows at seedling stage with any straw like dry spent, e.g., citronella or palmarosa reduces the incidence of die-back to a considerable degree. A new strain of Catharanthus roseus viz. WH-40 has been developed at CIMAP Regional Centre, Bangalore, which has high level of field resistance to the die-back disease. Cultivation of this w strain greatly minimises the loss due to die-back. The alkaloid content in leaves and roots of this strain has been found to be at par with the generally cultivated pink variety. ACTIVE
Constituents and uses of Periwinkle (Sadabahar):-
The percentage of total alkaloids reported in different parts of the plants are as follows:
|Plant part||Total alkaloids (%)
At present, more than 100 alkaloids have been isolated from the various parts of the plant. Some of the alkaloids are present in extremely low amounts in the plant. The yield of vincristine is the lowest amongst other medicinally important alkaloid isolated on a commercial basis ( 0.00025 % in the leaves ) . Apart from vinblastine and vincristine, some of the other important alkaloids present are reserpine, ajimalicine (raubasine) and serpentine. Traditionally, the main source for the latter alkaloids is Rauvolfia serpentina. The former two alkaloids are present in the roots of C. roseus in higher percentage than in R. serpentina. This has further enhanced the importance of C. roseus. The roots of Catharanthus are being used in Europe, mostly to isolate raubasine (ajmalicine), which has been used to check fragility of capillaries. Vinblastine in the form of vinblastine sulphate is available in American market under the trade name ‘VELBE’ and vincristine sulphate as ONCOVIN’ (Eli Lilly). Both are cytotoxic drugs. The for ner is mainly used in the treatment of Hodgkin’s disease and other lymphomas and in the choriocarcinomas. Vincristine sulphate is more effective against acute leukaemia, particularly in children At CIMAP Regional Centre, Bangalore, process for extraction of total alkaloids from roots has been developed on pilot-scale. Process for preparation of ajmalicine has been developed on bench- scale. These processes are available for commercial exploitation. The yield of total alkaloid from airdried roots is about 1.5 % and the recovery of ajmalicine from roots is about 0.18 % on air – dry basis.
Other uses of Periwinkle (Sadabahar):-
The alkaloids possess hypotensive, sedative and tran- Experiments on animals have shown that certain ex- The plant is a handsome garden plant and flowers throughout the year, this gives the plant the name Sadabahar’. The plant is quite hardy and is popular for ornamental planting.
Other species of Periwinkle (Sadabahar):-
Catharanthus pusillus G. Don [syn. Vinca pusilla Murr, Loch- nera Pusilla (Murr.) K. Schum, Sanskrit-Sangkhaphuli, Kan- nada- Visakanigalu, Tamil-Milagai poondu] occurs as a weed, and is reported to be useful in lumbago